# Source code for captum.module.binary_concrete_stochastic_gates

```
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import math
from typing import Optional
import torch
from captum.module.stochastic_gates_base import StochasticGatesBase
from torch import nn, Tensor
def _torch_empty(batch_size: int, n_gates: int, device: torch.device) -> Tensor:
return torch.empty(batch_size, n_gates, device=device)
# torch.fx is introduced in 1.8.0
if hasattr(torch, "fx"):
torch.fx.wrap(_torch_empty)
def _logit(inp):
# torch.logit is introduced in 1.7.0
if hasattr(torch, "logit"):
return torch.logit(inp)
else:
return torch.log(inp) - torch.log(1 - inp)
[docs]
class BinaryConcreteStochasticGates(StochasticGatesBase):
"""
Stochastic Gates with binary concrete distribution.
Stochastic Gates is a practical solution to add L0 norm regularization for neural
networks. L0 regularization, which explicitly penalizes any present (non-zero)
parameters, can help network pruning and feature selection, but directly optimizing
L0 is a non-differentiable combinatorial problem. To surrogate L0, Stochastic Gate
uses certain continuous probability distributions (e.g., Concrete, Gaussian) with
hard-sigmoid rectification as a continuous smoothed Bernoulli distribution
determining the weight of a parameter, i.e., gate. Then L0 is equal to the gates's
non-zero probability represented by the parameters of the continuous probability
distribution. The gate value can also be reparameterized to the distribution
parameters with a noise. So the expected L0 can be optimized through learning
the distribution parameters via stochastic gradients.
BinaryConcreteStochasticGates adopts a "stretched" binary concrete distribution as
the smoothed Bernoulli distribution of gate. The binary concrete distribution does
not include its lower and upper boundaries, 0 and 1, which are required by a
Bernoulli distribution, so it needs to be linearly stretched beyond both boundaries.
Then use hard-sigmoid rectification to "fold" the parts smaller than 0 or larger
than 1 back to 0 and 1.
More details can be found in the original paper:
https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.01312
Examples::
>>> n_params = 5 # number of parameters
>>> stg = BinaryConcreteStochasticGates(n_params, reg_weight=0.01)
>>> inputs = torch.randn(3, n_params) # mock inputs with batch size of 3
>>> gated_inputs, reg = stg(mock_inputs) # gate the inputs
"""
def __init__(
self,
n_gates: int,
mask: Optional[Tensor] = None,
reg_weight: float = 1.0,
temperature: float = 2.0 / 3,
lower_bound: float = -0.1,
upper_bound: float = 1.1,
eps: float = 1e-8,
reg_reduction: str = "sum",
):
"""
Args:
n_gates (int): number of gates.
mask (Tensor, optional): If provided, this allows grouping multiple
input tensor elements to share the same stochastic gate.
This tensor should be broadcastable to match the input shape
and contain integers in the range 0 to n_gates - 1.
Indices grouped to the same stochastic gate should have the same value.
If not provided, each element in the input tensor
(on dimensions other than dim 0, i.e., batch dim) is gated separately.
Default: None
reg_weight (float, optional): rescaling weight for L0 regularization term.
Default: 1.0
temperature (float, optional): temperature of the concrete distribution,
controls the degree of approximation, as 0 means the original Bernoulli
without relaxation. The value should be between 0 and 1.
Default: 2/3
lower_bound (float, optional): the lower bound to "stretch" the binary
concrete distribution
Default: -0.1
upper_bound (float, optional): the upper bound to "stretch" the binary
concrete distribution
Default: 1.1
eps (float, optional): term to improve numerical stability in binary
concerete sampling
Default: 1e-8
reg_reduction (str, optional): the reduction to apply to the regularization:
``'none'`` | ``'mean'`` | ``'sum'``. ``'none'``: no reduction will be
applied and it will be the same as the return of ``get_active_probs``,
``'mean'``: the sum of the gates non-zero probabilities will be divided
by the number of gates, ``'sum'``: the gates non-zero probabilities will
be summed.
Default: ``'sum'``
"""
super().__init__(
n_gates, mask=mask, reg_weight=reg_weight, reg_reduction=reg_reduction
)
# avoid changing the tensor's variable name
# when the module is used after compilation,
# users may directly access this tensor by name
log_alpha_param = torch.empty(n_gates)
nn.init.normal_(log_alpha_param, mean=0.0, std=0.01)
self.log_alpha_param = nn.Parameter(log_alpha_param)
assert (
0 < temperature < 1
), f"the temperature should be bwteen 0 and 1, received {temperature}"
self.temperature = temperature
assert (
lower_bound < 0
), f"the stretch lower bound should smaller than 0, received {lower_bound}"
self.lower_bound = lower_bound
assert (
upper_bound > 1
), f"the stretch upper bound should larger than 1, received {upper_bound}"
self.upper_bound = upper_bound
self.eps = eps
# pre-calculate the fixed term used in active prob
self.active_prob_offset = temperature * math.log(-lower_bound / upper_bound)
def _sample_gate_values(self, batch_size: int) -> Tensor:
"""
Sample gate values for each example in the batch from the binary concrete
distributions
Args:
batch_size (int): input batch size
Returns:
gate_values (Tensor): gate value tensor of shape(batch_size, n_gates)
"""
if self.training:
u = _torch_empty(
batch_size, self.n_gates, device=self.log_alpha_param.device
)
u.uniform_(self.eps, 1 - self.eps)
s = torch.sigmoid((_logit(u) + self.log_alpha_param) / self.temperature)
else:
s = torch.sigmoid(self.log_alpha_param)
s = s.expand(batch_size, self.n_gates)
s_bar = s * (self.upper_bound - self.lower_bound) + self.lower_bound
return s_bar
def _get_gate_values(self) -> Tensor:
"""
Get the raw gate values, which are the means of the underneath gate
distributions, derived from learned log_alpha_param
Returns:
gate_values (Tensor): value of each gate after model is trained
"""
gate_values = (
torch.sigmoid(self.log_alpha_param) * (self.upper_bound - self.lower_bound)
+ self.lower_bound
)
return gate_values
def _get_gate_active_probs(self) -> Tensor:
"""
Get the active probability of each gate, i.e, gate value > 0, in the binary
concrete distributions
Returns:
probs (Tensor): probabilities tensor of the gates are active
in shape(n_gates)
"""
return torch.sigmoid(self.log_alpha_param - self.active_prob_offset)
@classmethod
def _from_pretrained(cls, log_alpha_param: Tensor, *args, **kwargs):
"""
Private factory method to create an instance with pretrained parameters
Args:
log_alpha_param (Tensor): FloatTensor containing weights for
the pretrained log_alpha
mask (Tensor, optional): If provided, this allows grouping multiple
input tensor elements to share the same stochastic gate.
This tensor should be broadcastable to match the input shape
and contain integers in the range 0 to n_gates - 1.
Indices grouped to the same stochastic gate should have the same value.
If not provided, each element in the input tensor
(on dimensions other than dim 0 - batch dim) is gated separately.
Default: None
reg_weight (float, optional): rescaling weight for L0 regularization term.
Default: 1.0
temperature (float, optional): temperature of the concrete distribution,
controls the degree of approximation, as 0 means the original Bernoulli
without relaxation. The value should be between 0 and 1.
Default: 2/3
lower_bound (float, optional): the lower bound to "stretch" the binary
concrete distribution
Default: -0.1
upper_bound (float, optional): the upper bound to "stretch" the binary
concrete distribution
Default: 1.1
eps (float, optional): term to improve numerical stability in binary
concerete sampling
Default: 1e-8
reg_reduction (str, optional): the reduction to apply to the regularization:
``'none'`` | ``'mean'`` | ``'sum'``. ``'none'``: no reduction will be
applied and it will be the same as the return of ``get_active_probs``,
``'mean'``: the sum of the gates non-zero probabilities will be divided
by the number of gates, ``'sum'``: the gates non-zero probabilities will
be summed.
Default: ``'sum'``
Returns:
stg (BinaryConcreteStochasticGates): StochasticGates instance
"""
assert (
log_alpha_param.dim() == 1
), "log_alpha_param is expected to be 1-dimensional"
n_gates = log_alpha_param.numel()
stg = cls(n_gates, *args, **kwargs)
stg.load_state_dict({"log_alpha_param": log_alpha_param}, strict=False)
return stg
```