# Source code for captum.module.binary_concrete_stochastic_gates

```
#!/usr/bin/env python3
import math
from typing import Optional
import torch
from captum.module.stochastic_gates_base import StochasticGatesBase
from torch import nn, Tensor
def _torch_empty(batch_size: int, n_gates: int, device: torch.device) -> Tensor:
return torch.empty(batch_size, n_gates, device=device)
# torch.fx is introduced in 1.8.0
if hasattr(torch, "fx"):
torch.fx.wrap(_torch_empty)
def _logit(inp):
# torch.logit is introduced in 1.7.0
if hasattr(torch, "logit"):
return torch.logit(inp)
else:
return torch.log(inp) - torch.log(1 - inp)
[docs]class BinaryConcreteStochasticGates(StochasticGatesBase):
"""
Stochastic Gates with binary concrete distribution.
Stochastic Gates is a practical solution to add L0 norm regularization for neural
networks. L0 regularization, which explicitly penalizes any present (non-zero)
parameters, can help network pruning and feature selection, but directly optimizing
L0 is a non-differentiable combinatorial problem. To surrogate L0, Stochastic Gate
uses certain continuous probability distributions (e.g., Concrete, Gaussian) with
hard-sigmoid rectification as a continuous smoothed Bernoulli distribution
determining the weight of a parameter, i.e., gate. Then L0 is equal to the gates's
non-zero probability represented by the parameters of the continuous probability
distribution. The gate value can also be reparameterized to the distribution
parameters with a noise. So the expected L0 can be optimized through learning
the distribution parameters via stochastic gradients.
BinaryConcreteStochasticGates adopts a "stretched" binary concrete distribution as
the smoothed Bernoulli distribution of gate. The binary concrete distribution does
not include its lower and upper boundaries, 0 and 1, which are required by a
Bernoulli distribution, so it needs to be linearly stretched beyond both boundaries.
Then use hard-sigmoid rectification to "fold" the parts smaller than 0 or larger
than 1 back to 0 and 1.
More details can be found in the
`original paper <https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.01312>`.
"""
def __init__(
self,
n_gates: int,
mask: Optional[Tensor] = None,
reg_weight: float = 1.0,
temperature: float = 2.0 / 3,
lower_bound: float = -0.1,
upper_bound: float = 1.1,
eps: float = 1e-8,
reg_reduction: str = "sum",
):
"""
Args:
n_gates (int): number of gates.
mask (Optional[Tensor]): If provided, this allows grouping multiple
input tensor elements to share the same stochastic gate.
This tensor should be broadcastable to match the input shape
and contain integers in the range 0 to n_gates - 1.
Indices grouped to the same stochastic gate should have the same value.
If not provided, each element in the input tensor
(on dimensions other than dim 0 - batch dim) is gated separately.
Default: None
reg_weight (Optional[float]): rescaling weight for L0 regularization term.
Default: 1.0
temperature (float): temperature of the concrete distribution, controls
the degree of approximation, as 0 means the original Bernoulli
without relaxation. The value should be between 0 and 1.
Default: 2/3
lower_bound (float): the lower bound to "stretch" the binary concrete
distribution
Default: -0.1
upper_bound (float): the upper bound to "stretch" the binary concrete
distribution
Default: 1.1
eps (float): term to improve numerical stability in binary concerete
sampling
Default: 1e-8
reg_reduction (str, optional): the reduction to apply to
the regularization: 'none'|'mean'|'sum'. 'none': no reduction will be
applied and it will be the same as the return of get_active_probs,
'mean': the sum of the gates non-zero probabilities will be divided by
the number of gates, 'sum': the gates non-zero probabilities will
be summed.
Default: 'sum'
"""
super().__init__(
n_gates, mask=mask, reg_weight=reg_weight, reg_reduction=reg_reduction
)
# avoid changing the tensor's variable name
# when the module is used after compilation,
# users may directly access this tensor by name
log_alpha_param = torch.empty(n_gates)
nn.init.normal_(log_alpha_param, mean=0.0, std=0.01)
self.log_alpha_param = nn.Parameter(log_alpha_param)
assert (
0 < temperature < 1
), f"the temperature should be bwteen 0 and 1, received {temperature}"
self.temperature = temperature
assert (
lower_bound < 0
), f"the stretch lower bound should smaller than 0, received {lower_bound}"
self.lower_bound = lower_bound
assert (
upper_bound > 1
), f"the stretch upper bound should larger than 1, received {upper_bound}"
self.upper_bound = upper_bound
self.eps = eps
# pre-calculate the fixed term used in active prob
self.active_prob_offset = temperature * math.log(-lower_bound / upper_bound)
def _sample_gate_values(self, batch_size: int) -> Tensor:
"""
Sample gate values for each example in the batch from the binary concrete
distributions
Args:
batch_size (int): input batch size
Returns:
gate_values (Tensor): gate value tensor of shape(batch_size, n_gates)
"""
if self.training:
u = _torch_empty(
batch_size, self.n_gates, device=self.log_alpha_param.device
)
u.uniform_(self.eps, 1 - self.eps)
s = torch.sigmoid((_logit(u) + self.log_alpha_param) / self.temperature)
else:
s = torch.sigmoid(self.log_alpha_param)
s = s.expand(batch_size, self.n_gates)
s_bar = s * (self.upper_bound - self.lower_bound) + self.lower_bound
return s_bar
def _get_gate_values(self) -> Tensor:
"""
Get the raw gate values, which are the means of the underneath gate
distributions, derived from learned log_alpha_param
Returns:
gate_values (Tensor): value of each gate after model is trained
"""
gate_values = (
torch.sigmoid(self.log_alpha_param) * (self.upper_bound - self.lower_bound)
+ self.lower_bound
)
return gate_values
def _get_gate_active_probs(self) -> Tensor:
"""
Get the active probability of each gate, i.e, gate value > 0, in the binary
concrete distributions
Returns:
probs (Tensor): probabilities tensor of the gates are active
in shape(n_gates)
"""
return torch.sigmoid(self.log_alpha_param - self.active_prob_offset)
@classmethod
def _from_pretrained(cls, log_alpha_param: Tensor, *args, **kwargs):
"""
Private factory method to create an instance with pretrained parameters
Args:
log_alpha_param (Tensor): FloatTensor containing weights for
the pretrained log_alpha
mask (Optional[Tensor]): If provided, this allows grouping multiple
input tensor elements to share the same stochastic gate.
This tensor should be broadcastable to match the input shape
and contain integers in the range 0 to n_gates - 1.
Indices grouped to the same stochastic gate should have the same value.
If not provided, each element in the input tensor
(on dimensions other than dim 0 - batch dim) is gated separately.
Default: None
reg_weight (Optional[float]): rescaling weight for L0 regularization term.
Default: 1.0
temperature (float): temperature of the concrete distribution, controls
the degree of approximation, as 0 means the original Bernoulli
without relaxation. The value should be between 0 and 1.
Default: 2/3
lower_bound (float): the lower bound to "stretch" the binary concrete
distribution
Default: -0.1
upper_bound (float): the upper bound to "stretch" the binary concrete
distribution
Default: 1.1
eps (float): term to improve numerical stability in binary concerete
sampling
Default: 1e-8
Returns:
stg (BinaryConcreteStochasticGates): StochasticGates instance
"""
assert (
log_alpha_param.dim() == 1
), "log_alpha_param is expected to be 1-dimensional"
n_gates = log_alpha_param.numel()
stg = cls(n_gates, *args, **kwargs)
stg.load_state_dict({"log_alpha_param": log_alpha_param}, strict=False)
return stg
```